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Art of Radio New Zealand 1978 ©

The NZ Radio Dial 1978
'Generation X born to the sound of Popular Kiwi Radio'

image of NZ Radio ZM Magazine Ad

This newspaper ad for the ZM Network appeared in 1978.
© Greg Agnew Collection, Radio Heritage Foundation Collection

At the end of the 1970's, almost 40 separate radio stations with different programs broadcast in New Zealand. We've chosen some examples of artwork from half of these to give you an idea of how the early private stations and the state broadcaster chose to portray themselves to their increasingly youthful audience.

You'll find them scattered throughout this article which also appears on-line under the title 'The NZ Radio Dial 1978'. We've chosen to present the same content with different headings because people use this site for different reasons.

Our Art of Radio © series attracts different readers from those interested in what the radio dials of the past once looked and sounded like. With this 'hybrid' article, we can cater for both views at the same time, and show how the world of radio heritage can be viewed from more than one angle.

The Art of Radio New Zealand © also got the highest score in our recent on-line poll where we asked you which artwork you wanted to see next. Why not email us with your comments on 'both' these articles. Enjoy!

As the first Generation X kids were born in the 1970's, early baby boomer parents still listened to 'Music Whilst You Work' on the National Program. Or partied to pop music from a commercial radio station until midnight - when the stations mostly closed down and LP's went onto the record player instead.

Only 6 radio stations in Auckland

Just 30 years or so ago in 1978, New Zealand radio listeners had only five or six radio programs to choose from if they lived in a large city such as Wellington or Christchurch, all but one operated by the government controlled NZBC. Slightly better choice in Auckland where there were three private stations, worse if they lived in a small provincial town, and much worse everywhere else.

Generation X parents were excited at this range of choice. Cliff Richard was hot. So were the Rolling Stones [but not on the YA stations] and Carole King was topping the charts. Only a decade earlier, pirate Radio Hauraki had started clearing the Kiwi air of government controlled radio with its list of banned records, and changes were still slow coming. The radio dial in late 1978 wasn't much different from that in 1968 [or 1958 for that matter] except for the glacially slow return of private radio.

Over 80% state controlled

image of NZ Radio, Radio New Zealand birdcard

Radio New Zealand issued listener cards with this fantail design in the 1970's.
© Greg Agnew Collection, Radio Heritage Foundation Collection

There were 69 separate AM transmitters broadcasting [this was well before FM] and the NZBC operated 57 of them. There were four Concert Program stations [in each of the main centers], sixteen National Program stations, 21 separate community stations, a collection of hybrid stations [combining either the Concert or National Programs with a nearby community station], the ZM stations [main centers excluding Dunedin] and odd one out, Apple Radio 2ZK in Hastings.

The National Program had only recently started broadcasting through the night, previously closing down after midnight. The community radio stations all closed down at midnight, although during the summer holiday period, they kept going with the 'Tonight Show' until 5am when the local Breakfast Shows began. Younger listeners to pop music on 1/2/3ZM were supposed to be safely tucked up in bed with or without partners - when the stations closed down at midnight.

Hybrid 3ZO tops in Twizel

image of NZ Radio, Radio Caroline in Timaru

Radio Caroline in Timaru used this logo in the 1970's.
© Greg Agnew Collection, Radio Heritage Foundation Collection

The NZBC expanded coverage in the 1970's, meeting complaints about poor National Program reception in a number of places by installing 'infill' repeater stations in places like Palmerston North, Nelson, Alexandra and Queenstown. In some places, 'hybrid' stations were established that carried a mix of commercial and non-commercial programs, with 3YR Reefton and 3ZO Twizel as examples. In other towns, such as Tokoroa, there was a local studio, relays from Radio Lakeland in Taupo, and the National Program, all heard at different times of the day on the same frequency.

Remember Apple Radio 730AM?

image of NZ Radio, Apple Radio sticker

Taking a bite out of the Hawkes Bay radio market in the 1970's.
© Greg Agnew Collection, Radio Heritage Foundation Collection

Apple Radio was ostensibly established to expand the Concert Program into the Hawkes Bay twin cities of Napier and Hastings, but the reality was an attempt to prevent private radio from getting established. Setting up a ZM station would have been too obvious. A similar move was made in Gore [Hokonui Country Radio] to head off a private station in Invercargill for as long as possible.

Ashburton suddenly had a hybrid station when Canterbury Broadcasting and Radio Avon tested the feasibility of a mid-Canterbury network of stations for Ashburton, Timaru and the North Otago town of Oamaru. Even Oamaru had an NZBC sponsored station for a scouting jamboree shortly afterwards, this station eventually becoming permanently established as 4ZW and sometimes relaying 4ZB Dunedin to make it economic.

Provincial Radio had audience 'in the bag'

image of NZ Radio, Radio New Zealand 1ZA Moving On

RNZ used fantasy figures to promote local stations like 1ZA as 'moving on' with the times.
© Greg Agnew Collection, Radio Heritage Foundation Collection

The community stations still kept a strong grip on most airwaves across the country, especially in provincial towns where they had no competition. They were centers of local entertainment, with events pouring out of studios, local theaters, A&P shows, home shows and beach sound shells over summer.

Selwyn Toogood stumped around the nation with 'It's in the Bag' until the middle of the decade to continue traditions going back to the 1930's. Everything from racing results to 'Dr Paul' and the latest 'Hits from Germany' as well as on air 'trading posts' or 'Buy, Sell, Exchange' could be heard on the one size fits all stations.

Flagship ZB's falter at first

The flagship ZB's however, started the 1970's suffering under the growing assault from the private stations, despite the fact that the Broadcasting Tribunal tightly controlled private radio. Applications for new stations usually collapsed when tested against tough criteria set by government policies, opposition from the NZBC, and opposition from other potential or existing private stations.

Competition decimates state radio

image of NZ Radio, Promotional logo for 'Super' 3ZB

Promotional logo for 'Super' 3ZB in the mid-1970's.
© Greg Agnew Collection, Radio Heritage Foundation Collection

In 1978, the following private stations were on air: Radio I, Radio Hauraki and Radio Pacific [Auckland], Radio Waikato [Hamilton], Radio Whakatane, Radio Windy [Wellington], Radio Avon [Christchurch], and Radio Otago and 4XD [Dunedin]. All were locally owned, often funded through share offers on the stock exchange and had high profile popular radio personalities and tight American style formats to drive their success.
image of NZ Radio, 4XD car sticker

Even the oldest station in NZ cranked up the pressure on state radio. This 4XD car sticker is from 1978.
© Greg Agnew Collection, Radio Heritage Foundation Collection

Dunedin's 4XD was the last remaining station of the original 'B' class broadcasters from the 1930's and run by a non-profit association.

The original Christchurch Gospel Radio Fellowship 'Radio Rhema' station had been joined by a second station in Wellington in late 1978.

'Turn Your Radio On' to 'Radio Avon 12-90 Christchurch City'

image of NZ Radio, 3XA Radio Avon QSL

Images of a busy radio station, 3XA Radio Avon in 1978.
© Greg Agnew Collection, Radio Heritage Foundation Collection

Many of the stations had fast become market leaders, the runaway success being Radio Avon, which had destroyed the 3ZB dominance of the Christchurch airwaves. The NZBC fought Radio Avon in 1978 by converting 3ZM into 'Radio Nova', attempting an early version of automated programing with a 'Beautiful Music' format somewhat similar to that of Radio I in Auckland which was having reasonable success in that market as 'Easy Listening I'.

'Nova' [coincidentally 'Avon' spelled backwards] behaved like any exploding star, with a brief moment of listener interest before self destruction and reverting to the rock music played on siblings 1ZM and 2ZM. The automation gear now sits forlornly in a corner of a room alongside Vintage Radio 3XP at the Ferrymead Historic Park in Christchurch.
image of NZ Radio, Radio Nova logo

Radio Nova 1400AM logo from 1978.
© Greg Agnew Collection, Radio Heritage Foundation Collection

Radio Hauraki on a high wave

In Auckland, Radio Hauraki with its traditional pop music format was a reasonable ratings performer, and Radio I it's long time rival from the late 1960's [when it's owners bought time on 1ZM] - and with an 'easy listening' format - was also popular, especially amongst females. A new station had just appeared on the dial in Manukau City as well, with Radio Pacific and its talk back format. But the NZBC flagship, 1ZB, sailed on with the majority of audience share built around the breakfast show host Merv Smith.

Blowing Up from the South

In Wellington, Radio Windy was 'blowing your way' and doing a good job blowing away chunks of audience from 2ZB and 2ZM. However, the difficulties of establishing a strong signal over the hilly metro area contributed to holding the station back from the sustained pre-eminence that Radio Avon enjoyed in the pancake flat Christchurch market.

image of NZ Radio, 4ZB Otago

Radio Station 4ZB heavily promoted its Otago wide coverage in 1978.
© Greg Agnew Collection, Radio Heritage Foundation Collection

In Dunedin, Radio Otago fresh from successfully challenging 4ZB in the city - was planning an assault on the Central Otago heartland held by 4ZB's partial repeaters in Alexandra and Queenstown. In Hamilton, Radio Waikato also had ambitious plans for a network of stations, in their case stretching from the Coromandel to the King Country.

Bosom makes Active Contact with U [Student Radio]

image of NZ Radio, Radio Contact logo

Radio Contact 1440AM logo from 1978.
© Greg Agnew Collection, Radio Heritage Foundation Collection

At the same time, short term student radio stations such as Radio Bosom [Auckland], Radio Contact [Hamilton], Radio Active [Wellington] and Radio U [Christchurch] were struggling to gain the student audiences for a few weeks later months each year. Other temporary stations came and went along the AM dial and everyone involved with radio kept a wary ear for the stereo revolution that was now just a few years away with the introduction of FM radio.

Radio Auckland 1 and 2

Like AM radio in 1966, it would take another pirate station in Auckland to deliver music - for both ears this time - as Radio Auckland began illegal broadcasting in FM stereo to the city. The supporters of Radio Auckland [students and commercial radio interests] actually ran their first brief FM tests in 1975. FM now, that's another story.

For now, let's take a stroll along the New Zealand Radio Dial in 1978 and revisit some familiar old names and call signs and continue to enjoy radio artwork from the period. The sounds of those times? They're coming soon!
Frequency [AM] Call Sign Location Name
558 4ZG Gore Concert Program
567 2YA Wellington National Program
630 2YZ Napier National Program
639 4YW Alexandra National Program/Community Radio 4ZB
657 2YC Wellington Concert Program
Darryl Ware, a member of the Tranny Set on Radio Northland in the late 1970's.
© Greg Agnew Collection, Radio Heritage Foundation Collection
image of NZ Radio, Darryl Ware on Radio Northland
675 3YA Christchurch National Program
720 4YZ Invercargill National Program
747 3ZA Greymouth Community Radio Scenicland
756 1YA Auckland National Program
765 2ZK Hastings Apple Radio/Concert Program
783 2YB Wellington National Program [2YA alternative]
810 4YA Dunedin National Program
819 1YZ Rotorua National Program
837 1YX Whangarei National Program
837 1YK Kaitaia National Program
846 2ZD Masterton Community Radio Wairarapa
864 4ZA Invercargill Community Radio Southland
873 3ZE Ashburton Community Radio Ashburton/Community Radio 3ZB/National Program
image of NZ Radio, Radio Forestland 1ZO

Radio Forestland 1ZO felt the heat of competition from Radio Waikato in 1978.
© Greg Agnew Collection, Radio Heritage Foundation Collection

882 1YC Auckland Concert Program
891 2XW Wellington Radio Windy
900 4YC Dunedin Concert Program
918 3YZ Greymouth National Program
927 2ZA Palmerston North Community Radio Manawatu
945 2ZG Gisborne Community Radio Gisborne
954 1XW Hamilton Radio Waikato
963 3YC Christchurch Concert Program
981 1YE Kaikohe National Program
image of NZ Radio, RNZ stations 2ZP New Plymouth and 2ZH Hawera rebranded as Radio Taranaki

RNZ stations 2ZP New Plymouth and 2ZH Hawera rebranded as Radio Taranaki in this 1978 car sticker.
© Greg Agnew Collection, Radio Heritage Foundation Collection

1008 1ZD Tauranga Community Radio BOP
1026 1ZN Whangarei Community Radio Northland
1026 1ZK Kaitaia Community Radio Northland
1035 2ZB Wellington Community Radio 2ZB
1044 4ZB Dunedin Community Radio 4ZB
1053 2ZP New Plymouth Community Radio Taranaki
1080 1ZB Auckland Community Radio 1ZB
1098 3ZB Christchurch Community Radio 3ZB
1116 2YX Nelson National Program
image of NZ Radio, Masterton Radio Station 2ZD

Tiny provincial Masterton Radio Station 2ZD cheered up its act in the 1970's.
© Greg Agnew Collection, Radio Heritage Foundation Collection

1134 4YQ Queenstown National Program/Community Radio 4ZB
1143 1YW Hamilton National Program
1152 3ZC Timaru Community Radio Caroline
1162 2ZM Wellington 2ZM
1197 2ZW Wanganui Community Radio Wanganui
1206 4XO Dunedin Radio Otago
1215 1ZE Kaikohe Community Radio Northland
1242 1XX Whakatane Radio Whakatane
1242 1XX Murupara Radio Whakatane
1251 1ZM Auckland 1ZM
image of NZ Radio, 2ZM Wellington

Musical notes from 2ZM Wellington located in [later demolished in an act of state vandalism] Broadcasting House.
© Greg Agnew Collection, Radio Heritage Foundation Collection

1260 3XA Christchurch Radio Avon
1278 2ZC Napier Community Bay City Radio
1296 1ZH Hamilton Community Radio 1ZH
1314 2YW Gisborne National Program
1323 3ZM Christchurch 3ZM
1332 1XI Auckland Radio I
1341 2ZN Nelson Community Radio Nelson
1350 1ZC Rotorua Community Radio Geyserland
1386 1ZT Turangi Community Radio Lakeland/National Program
image of NZ Radio, Radio Station 2ZN

Bright colors from Radio Station 2ZN liven up the corporate logo in 1978.
© Greg Agnew Collection, Radio Heritage Foundation Collection

1413 1ZO Tokoroa Community Radio Forestland/Community Radio Lakeland/National Program
1431 4XD Dunedin Radio 4XD
1449 2YM Palmerston North National Program
1458 3YW Westport National Program
1476 1XA Auckland Radio Hauraki
1485 3ZO Twizel Community Radio Caroline/National Program
1494 1ZA Taupo Community Radio Lakeland/National Program
1503 2XG Wellington Radio Rhema
image of NZ Radio, Gospel Radio 3XG

Gospel Radio's 3XG was rather conservative in 1978.
© Greg Agnew Collection, Radio Heritage Foundation Collection

1512 1ZU Taumarunui Community Radio Voice of the King Country/National Program
1521 3YR Reefton Community Radio Scenicland/National Program
1539 2ZE Blenheim Community Radio Marlborough
1557 2ZH Hawera Community Radio Taranaki
1575 3XG Christchurch Radio Rhema
1593 1XP Auckland Radio Pacific

image of NZ Radio, Radio Otago 4XO

Big bold Otago colors scream Radio Otago in the late 1970's.
© Greg Agnew Collection, Radio Heritage Foundation Collection

image of front cover of 'Voices in the Air' by Peter Downes and Peter Harcourt

Buy 'Voices in the Air' by Peter Downes and Peter Harcourt.

image of jacket from 'ZB The Voice of an Iconic Radio Station' by Bill Francis

Buy ZB The Voice of an Iconic Radio Station by Bill Francis.

image of Front Cover of Shoestring Pirates by Adrian Blackburn
image of Front Cover of Pirate Radio Hauraki CD by David Miller

Buy the special Radio Hauraki Book/CD combo

If you worked in Kiwi radio during the 1970's or have memories, recordings, promotional items or ephemera of any of these stations, please do your bit to protect our radio heritage. Register them with us or let us look after them for you. Write to us at PO Box 14339, Wellington 6241 or send us an email. Our social history is worth preserving.

For a comparison, see the [New Zealand Radio Dial in 1931] and look at how many radio stations and different programs served Auckland almost half a century earlier. There's no doubt that radio broadcasting as an industry had suffered immensely during the long 35 years of state control and was barely emerging from a moribund state as late as 1978.

For an introduction to the short-term stations permitted by the state as a safety valve [much like the LPFM stations of today], see [Short Term Kiwi Radio Memories] and enjoy some of the stations that blazed a trail for new formats, new communities and new personalities.

Again, if you've got memories or memorabilia of any of these Popular Kiwi Radio stations, personalities, events or more, please do your bit for your country, and register them with us or send them to us to copy or to keep for future generations to understand and enjoy.

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